What does a carbohydrate consist of?
What does a carbohydrate consist of








  1. MONOSACCHARIDES: Mono represents one i.e. it contains a single energy source such as glucose, fructose or galactose. Glucose is the simplest form of sugar. It is not the sugar of the tablespoon that we eat in our day to day life. It’s the sugar which contains in our body. So, you might have heard from doctors saying sugar levels in your body has been increased so this sugar is nothing but the glucose of your body. Whereas fructose is an also one of the energy sources which is contained in fruits and galactose is another source of energy which you will find it in milk.


  1. DISACCHARIDES: Disaccharides are nothing but the combination of two monosaccharides from glucose, fructose, and galactose.So the combination of these energy sources is nothing but disaccharides. So, the formation as follow
    • Sucrose(glucose + fructose) e.g. Table sugar
    • Maltose(glucose + glucose)
    • Lactose or milk sugar(glucose or galactose)

Sucrose is found in cane and beet sugar, Sorghum (jowar), maple syrup in small quantities in some fruits and vegetables. Whereas Lactose are found in milk

  • Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides are made of multiple monosaccharides’s joined together by condensation to form glycosidic bonds. Some types of polysaccharides are: starch, glycogen, and cellulose. They are all polymers of glucose.
    • Starch (Abundant in nature)
    • Cellulose
    • glycogen

Polysaccharides are found in cereals, potatoes, banana, Also in small quantities in dals and sprouts. Plants store glucose as amylose or amylopectin, glucose polymers collectively called starch. Cellulose is a component in plant cell walls, made of long linear chains of glucose with β(1-4) linkage. The glucose molecules are flipped over promoting intra-chain and inter-chain H-bonds and van der Walls interactions which make the cellulose chains straight.


How Digestion of carbs takes place?

There are two types of enzymes are necessary for the digestions of carbohydrates such as Amylases and disaccharidases.Amylases convert polysaccharides to disaccharides and Disaccharides convert disaccharides to monosaccharides which are finally absorbed.The process of digestion of carbohydrates starts from the mouth itself then in the stomach and finally in the small intestine. Digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth, upon contact with the saliva during mastication.Saliva contains a carbohydrate-splitting enzyme called salivary amylase, also known as ptylin. The action of salivary amylase-Action of salivary amylase- It requires Cl- ion for activation and PH 6.7. The enzyme hydrolyzes α-(1-4) glycosidic bonds at random deep inside polysaccharide (starch, glycogen). Producing dextrins, maltose, maltotriose, glucose. Digestion in Mouth. Digestion of carbohydrate temporarily stops in the stomach. The action of salivary amylase stops in the stomach because of the high acidity of the stomach. No carbohydrate-splitting enzymes are available in gastric juice. Digestion in Stomach Further digestion of carbohydrate occurs in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes. Food bolus reaches the small intestine from stomach where it meets the pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice contains enzyme called pancreatic amylase(amylopsin) similar to S. amylase. There is two phase of intestinal digestion…. Digestion due to pancreatic amylase Digestion due to intestinal brush border enzyme. Digestion in Intestine  When you eat too much and got a high glucose concentration, the body needs a way to store this glucose for a rainy day. So the pancreas comes to the rescue, producing insulin which will convert the glucose into glycogen.This glycogen is then stored it in the liver and muscles. However. When the glucose concentration is low again, the hormone glucagon will convert glycogen back into glucose. Plants, on the other hand, store their glucose as another carbohydrate complex called Starch. [/fusion_text]




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